As the Battle of Britain came to a close, the Luftwaffe began arming its single-engine fighters with bombs and using them instead of bombers for many daylight raids against shipping and coastal installations, railways, fuel depots, and other military and civilian objectives. The fighter-bombers also launched unopposed attacks against London and numerous other cities and towns across England. Known as "tip and run" attacks, these raids had a detrimental effect on British morale.
Chris Goss is a modern-day veteran of the Royal Air Force and the author of a number of books on World War II in the air. He lives in England.